1 Mobile Technology


I’m calling what I do urban #sciart performance, historical interpretation. And I’m saying I’m qualified to do it because I was an English major with a minor in Marine Science, and I went to graduate school for Museum Studies, and most important: I am a big nerd. I love the history of women in nineteenth-century science and their clothes, and I’ve been dressed as Mary Elizabeth Banning (1822-1903), “the mother of Maryland mycology” for most of the past month.

I go as Mary Elizabeth Banning to the store—people think possibly that I’m Amish or a Ren Fest escapee. I go mushroom hunting in nearby parks in Baltimore as Mary Elizabeth Banning. “Ma’am,” someone said tipping his hiking hat. “Sir,” I said.

Is this living history cosplay of a nineteenth-century lady naturalist a mid-life crisis? Because, according my gynecologist, my estrogen “is shit.” Shiver, I think to myself. “I hope not,” I say out loud, pulling the wool shawl that I would never otherwise wear around myself for warmth as I use my mushrooming stick on the duff, searching for late-season chanterelles, “I’m having a great time.”

My “Mary Elizabeth Banning” costume allows me the full freedom I needed to ancestor worship the early women in science I hold dear. My dowager aunts is how I think of them. I am but a link in their chain. I harken to their call.

Some people have their altars. For others, their altar is the woods. My place of worship of nature is historical interpretation of Victorian natural history. The Victorians loved Nature. There was a fern craze, literally. And I understood how they felt. When I learned about ferns in Maryland master naturalist training, water filled my mouth. Ferns! How overlooked are their lovely demure curved heads! Rapture. Thrills.

“During the Victorian era, the sciences achieved their cultural authority,” writes Eugenia Bone in her book, Mycophilia: Revelations from the Weird World of Mushrooms. “Natural history and natural philosophy became science, and science became a profession. For decades, though, field work conducted by amateur mycologists contributed to the body of knowledge, and amateurs collected many of the samples that fill botanical garden archives in the United States today.”

I can’t be a modern scientist. At one point in college I thought I would be a marine biologist wearing chapeaux like Jacques Cousteau, but then—the higher level maths. I was (feminist death) bad at math at Smith CollegeStill, the yearning to contribute to science stayed with me even as I went on to do other things, to follow other voices and to investigate other rooms.

Oh, to be a nineteenth-century lady naturalist amateur mycologist! I brought my hand to my brow in a mock-faint. Wait a minute.


Why. Can’t. I? Why can’t I be the modern suburban mom version of The Country Diary of An Edwardian Lady?

“Only connect,” wrote E.M Forster. Mary Elizabeth Banning was an immediate connection. She grew up on Maryland’s Eastern Shore; I also spent summers as a child in Talbot County on my grandparent’s farm. She moved to Baltimore; I moved to Baltimore. She got deeply into mushrooms; Irecently felt the siren’s call of their subterranean lives, too. In middle age, one begins to appreciate decay. The recycling of energy of the ecosystem. Dirt to dirt. Mycelium.

I admired Banning. She bucked the odds though they were against her. She corresponded with a mycologist in New York who was one of the few people who took her science seriously. (He later left her brilliantly illustrated manuscript in a drawer, to be found there the 1980s. Read more here.) Plus, according to Eugenia Bone, “Not all cultures appreciate fungi. The English have traditionally characterized mushrooms as being unhealthy, bad tasting, and spiritually degrading.”

But I have no fungophobia. I’m having fun. Tasha Tudor, the American Beatrix Potter and famous nature-and-Corgi-dogs children’s book illustrator, said in interviews that she was the reincarnation of a sea captain’s wife who lived in 1800. Like her, I’m doing my own #sciart performance with my hair in a low bun, wearing petticoats, and carrying a walking stick. I do this for my ancestors, the nineteenth-century lady naturalists like Mary Elizabeth Banning.

Photo/illustration credits (top to bottom): the author in cosplay (selfie); vintage French poster; drawing of the author (in costume) by her daughter; various mushrooms collected by author.

A degree in computer graphics technology can prepare you for jobs in design, drafting and animation. Find out about different careers, salaries and schooling options, including online study. Schools offering 3D Animation degrees can also be found in these popular choices.


What Careers Are Available in Computer Graphics Technology?

Computer graphics technology professionals can work in a variety of fields, including entertainment, business and education. Earning a bachelor’s or master’s degree in graphic design might help you find work as a graphic or Web designer who designs websites, advertisements or magazine layouts. A degree in graphic design could also qualify you for work as a multimedia artist or animator. In some cases, earning an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in computer graphics technology might lead to work as a drafter or a computer aided design (CAD) specialist; these professionals create technical layouts needed for building and equipment construction.

Career Options Graphic design, web design, drafting, computer aided design
Job Outlook (2014-24)* No change for graphic designers; 3% decline for drafters; 6% growth for multimedia artists and animators
Areas of Study Computer graphics technology, graphic design
Program Format On campus or online

Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

What is the Salary Outlook?

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the number of graphic design jobs was not expected to change for the period of 2014-2024 (www.bls.gov). The BLS notes that graphic designers made a median annual wage of $46,900 as of May 2015.

The number of employed multimedia artists and animators is projected to grow by 6% from 2014-2024, according to the BLS. Multimedia artists and animators earned a median annual salary of $63,970 per year as of May 2015.

The BLS reported that the number of employed drafters was expected to shrink by three percent from 2014-2024. During this time, drafters in the field of electronics and electricity had the best chance of gaining employment. CAD drafters in these two fields earned a median annual salary of $59,520 as of May 2015, as reported by the BLS.

How Can I Train?

If you’re interested in working as a graphic designer, you can earn a bachelor’s or master’s degree in graphic design. You might take courses in computer animation, typography, interactive media, electronic illustration and Web design. You could also learn how to use different software programs, such as Photoshop, AfterEffects or Dreamweaver. Some bachelor’s programs in graphic design may culminate in the creation of a professional portfolio.

Associate’s, bachelor’s and master’s programs in computer graphics technology are rare. In these programs, you’ll learn how to use software programs like AutoCAD; you’ll also examine the techniques used to create architectural and manufacturing drafts. Some bachelor’s and master’s programs include courses similar to those offered in graphic design programs, like Web page creation or visual effects. Some schools allow you to enroll in a combined bachelor’s and master’s program in computer graphics technology.

Can I Learn Online?

Bachelor’s degree classes in computer graphics technology might be available through distance learning. You could also pursue a bachelor’s degree in graphic design online.

Distance learning classes may allow you to watch lecture broadcasts live and participate asynchronously with classmates through discussion boards. Schools usually recommend that you have a high-speed Internet connection. Online graphic design programs typically require you to purchase a number of software programs; some might require the use of a flatbed scanner and a digital camera for projects. Exams might need to be proctored at your university or a nearby school.

To continue researching, browse degree options below for course curriculum, prerequisites and financial aid information. Or, learn more about the subject by reading the related articles below:

The 3D graphics technology (3DGT) program offers you an associate in applied science degree that introduces concepts related to three-dimensional (3D) graphics and teaches you the creative and technical skills required to produce 3D graphics, 3D prints and environmental renderings that range from artistic to photorealistic in quality and 3D models used in multimedia and animation. A combination of traditional design skills and digital design techniques are taught, along with the representation of concepts of time, motion and lighting principles. This program prepares you for one of two options: entering the 3D graphics industry after graduation or continuing your studies in the 3D digital design BFA program offered by RIT’s College of Imaging Arts and Sciences.

The 3DGT program’s curriculum prepares you for entry-level employment in the 3D graphics industry. The 3DGT program covers the artistic and technical sides of the industry, with a particular focus on the modeling, animation and visualization processes in 3D graphics. You acquire the creative and technological skills required to create 3D graphics, 3D printouts, environmental visualization graphics and 3D models used in multimedia and animation.

The program requires you to acquire skills in traditional media drawing and painting, as well as in animation, modeling and 3D printing. You also learn how to read and understand design plans and blueprints. You will acquire computer-based skills in 2D and 3D graphics software. Also you learn skills related to project management, communication and and team-based work. The Capstone course offered in the final semester of the program provides you with an opportunity to utilize your skills on an applied skill-focused project that you complete with advice and guidance of faculty from the 3D graphics technology program. The structure of the Capstone course is that of a self-directed, semester-long project that is completed either on an individual basis or as part of a team-based project.

You gain real work experience through one semester of required cooperative education employment. You also complete a required portfolio workshop course in which you refine and complete your portfolio as needed for application to the BFA program in 3D digital design in RIT’s College of Imaging Arts and Sciences, or for an employment search.

STEM and the 3DGT program

Education in STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) careers is a major emphasis for students, parents and counselors as they consider which college programs match students’ interests and aptitudes. Funding for STEM career preparation is often a driving factor for many students and parents.

The 3D graphics technology program is a STEM career program because it draws its skills and expertise from two areas: the design and the engineering fields. 3D graphics are listed in the technology/computer science/engineering STEM disciplines.

With one of the only Pre-Media Design degrees in the Midwest, Dunwoody offers a unique experience allowing students to learn real-world skills such as image capture and editing, production workflow, digital asset management, and package layout and design. Students build a portfolio of professional work, including digital and print projects. These skills will smoothly transition them into a successful career as a Pre-Media Specialist, Structural Designer or other pre-production and technical support positions for advertising and design agencies, printing companies and packaging and display companies.


  • Small class sizes, allowing our students ample time with both the instructors and the printing equipment.
  • Instruction on a Mac OSX system giving students experience with industry standard tools and software like the Adobe Creative Suite and Artios CAD.
  • A state-of-the-art digital press and packaging design lab, complete with a Xerox iGen4™ Diamond Edition digital press, a digital printer, an Esko Kongsberg V20 cutting table, a wide format printer, a spectrodensitometer, and a spectrophotometer.
  • Pre-Media Technologies Industry Internship, partnering our students with working professionals to develop technical skills and professional behavior through monitored, on-the-job work experience.Mobile technology refers to devices that are both transportable and offer instantaneous access to information (Coates et al., 2009). The technology includes, “iPods, MP3 player, Personal Digital Assistants, USB Drive, E-Book Reader, Smart Phone, Ultra-Mobile PC and Laptop / Tablet PC” (Adeeb and Hussain, 2009, p.48). Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and smartphones are mobile devices that are agents of real-time communication (Chang et al., 2012). The hallmarks of mobile technology are its portability, flexibility, simplicity of use and its unique ability for integration with other technology systems (Alder and Fotheringham, 2012). Mobile devices are often referred to as ubiquitous and are utilized by people for many different activities (Kuzu, 2011).Mobile technology instruments have become a significant force in learning and are transitioning to more affordable and compact devices with greater dependability and connectivity (Franklin et al., 2007). In addition to its advantageous size and convenience, the technology permits multiple tasks such as note taking, telephone, email, music, video / audio recording, picture taking and GPS navigation (Akkerman and Filius, 2011). When compared with traditional computers, mobile technology demands less structure, which translates into easier implementation (Carillo et al., 2011).

    3 Affordances

    The flexibility of mobile technology allows learners to extend their learning experience so that it can occur at any time or any location, including outside the boundaries of a conventional classroom (Chen et al., 2009). The portability and flexibility of mobile technology encourages learners to transport their individual learning environment with them (Looi et al., 2012). Mobile technology allows learners to bring these devices home which helps to lengthen the learning process (Chen et al., 2009). Opportunities are created through mobile platforms, which promote the continuation of discussions that historically, start and stop in a physical classroom (Kuzu, 2011). Students can easily work on projects and assignments outside of class and are not restricted to working on a stationary computer (Franklin et al., 2007). Traditional classroom hours are defined and mobile technology generates an unrestricted avenue for learning to continue outside of those parameters (Chang et al., 2012).

    Collaboration is fostered with mobile technology (Jarvala and Laru, 2008) and facilitates participants sharing learning events (Blake et al., 2012). Mobile technology provides greater accessibility to both teaching and course content (Power and Shohel, 2010). Franklin et al. (2007) observed that students willingly shared information through mobile devices when working on a group project, which resulted in increased collaboration. Mobility can nurture collaboration by bridging differences in learning situations (Looi et al., 2012).

    Mobile technology generates educational opportunities and positively impacts learner engagement for students in remote locations with limited resources (Carillo et al., 2011). Alder and Fotheringham (2012) concluded that the use of SMS texts and podcasts created a connection with students that were isolated and promoted a sense of community. Students who experienced physical isolation indicated that there was value in connecting with their peers through mobile technology (Coates et al., 2009). Mobile technology also contributes to increased learner involvement by influencing a student’s organizational level as mobile devices can be used for time management purposes (Coates et al., 2009).

    Mobile technology results in enhanced communication by empowering students to direct questions to their instructors and peers and receive responses in real-time (Kuzu, 2011). Learners who participate in social networks for educational purposes have the opportunity to retrieve relevant information and share it to create better communication (Coates et al., 2009). The unharnessed power of the learning trend of mobile technology could potentially alter the character of and approaches to pedagogy (Power and Shohel, 2010).

    4 Constraints

    Mobile technologies have the potential to be disruptive, isolate participants and limit social interactions (Blake et al., 2012). The mobile technologies that effectively reduce the level of interaction between learners can result in a less cohesive learning experience (Adeeb and Hussain, 2009). Building an interactive and successful online community is challenging and can result in negative team dynamics (Jarvela and Laru, 2008). Although a student may possess a mobile technology device, ownership does not mean that they will decide to apply it for learning purposes, only that the opportunity to do so exists (Akkerman and Filius, 2011). Students are not compelled to respond or engage with their mobile devices (Alder and Fotheringham, 2012). There have been documented occurrences of inappropriate use of the technology that resulted in disruptions (Roberts and Vanska, 2011). Such an example of disruptive behaviour can occur when students use mobile devices for other activities besides studying (Adeeb and Hussain, 2009).

    The integration of mobile technology can impact a learner’s confidence as it has been observed that students can demonstrate apprehension towards using the technology (Coulby et al., 2011). Callaghan and Lea (2011) indicated that learners were hesitant to engage in the use of mobile technologies for anything outside of their regular accepted activities with that device. Mobile technology users can experience technical challenges and difficulties in using the device and its applications (Roberts and Vanska, 2011). There is a presumption that the net generation is comfortable with the concept of transferring their technological competence into the learning arena but this may not always be the case (Callaghan and Lea, 2011). There is a cultural shift required to ensure that students participate in technology not just for work or personal use but also for education (Akkerman and Filius, 2011).

    Another constraint with mobile technologies is that students can encounter a superficial or disconnected learning experience as information on a mobile device may contradict a participants’ own personal event (Blake et al., 2012). Learners using mobile technologies can gravitate to participation that is trivial or impacted by time, for example sending a short text as opposed to a more detailed, thoughtful exchange (Coates et al., 2009). Participants using mobile technology devices encountered activities that they considered mundane or boring (Roberts and Vanska, 2011). Chang et al. (2012) concluded that the apparent relevance of a mobile technology device influenced a user’s willingness to continue to access the device (Chang et al., 2012)

  • source:http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Mobile_Technology



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